Showing pages tagged "corn"

Planter Leveling

Recently I got a call from a farmer who wanted help in getting his planter leveled in the shop.

I visited the farm and proceeded to go over how to level the planter in the shop with a particular tractor.The real answer really is the shop is not a  good place to do that job. You really need to be in the field with the planter in the ground planting. It is best to be level or slightly higher in front.  The main frame is what you should look at first. The best way to eyeball it by running along side or riding in a four wheeler. If it was level last year it might not be this year due tractor tire wear or wear on the bushings in the hitch. If the planter is low in front it may push residue in front or not close the slot well in back .If for some reason one has to switch tractors this has to be looked at again. No two tractors are the same.Sometimes a very mellow field will allow a tractor to settle more and more adjustments have to be made.

 Good Luck  STAY WELL     DAVE SHEARING

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What are the Risks of Planting Corn Now?

Cold Soils & Risk of Imbibitional Chilling Injury in Corn

It's May 1st. The forecast shows some unseasonably cool temperatures this coming week. By the calendar we should be safe to plant corn now, right? Indiana growers were asking the same question about two weeks ago. The following are some excerpts from an article on imbibitional chilling injury by Dr. Bob Nielson from Purdue that may help you make a decision:

While farmers are free to plant corn whenever they choose to do do, there are risks associated with "early" planting (Nielsen, 2020). The primary risk is that associated with "cold" soil temperatures. Soils that hover around 50 degrees (F) for days or longer after planting delay germination and slow emergence of the young seedlings. More importantly, soil temperatures lower than about 50F increase the risk of "imbibitional chilling" injury to germinating seeds.

"Imbibition" refers to the initial uptake of water by seed during the first 24 to 48 hours after being planted into moist soil. The resulting rehydration causes the seed to swell and the germination process to begin. Imbibition occurs naturally, with no physiological processes involved (e.g., dry wood will imbibe water). It also occurs whether soils are cold or warm and therein lies the potential for "imbibitional chilling" injury.

When the seed swells as it rehydrates, its internal cell membrane structure is damaged. When seeds (and soil) are warm, the membrane damage is quickly repaired by the physiological activity associated with germination and "life goes on" normally. When seeds (and soil) are cold, their cell membranes are less elastic, the cell membrane damage due to swelling is more severe, and the physiological repair of the damage is slowed or stopped. Left unrepaired, this damage to cell membranes and the subsequent leakage of cell contents can result in death of the seed.

Past research on the nature and causes of imbibitional chilling injury to seed does not clearly identify the environmental conditions "in the real world" that result in a high probability of the problem. The literature implies that soil temperatures simply lower than 50F are a key factor. It is not clear from past research whether the injury can occur with only a few hours of exposure to sub-50F soil temperatures or whether it requires lengthier exposure to cold temperatures. What is known is that this type of chilling injury is most likely to occur during the first 24 to 48 hours after planting seed into moist soil because that is when imbibition (and corresponding seed swelling) occurs.

Identifying and Diagnosing the Problem in the Field

Identifying and the diagnosing the problem in the field is often challenging for several reasons. First of all, germination and emergence of corn in cold soils will naturally be slow. The first visual indicator of germination (other than the seed swelling) is the appearance of the radicle root between 35 and 60 Growing Degree Days (GDD) after planting (Nielsen, 2019).

Tip: Calculating GDDs using soil temperatures is preferred over air temperatures for predicting corn development progress prior to about the 6-leaf growth stage (V6). The reason is that the seed & young seedling responds more directly to soil temperature as long as the main growing point of the corn plant (apical meristem) remains below ground (until about V5-V6).

When soil temperatures hover around 50F for days or longer after planting, accumulating 35 to 60 GDD may take 1 to 2 weeks. Initially, dead seed due to imbibitional chilling injury do not look much different than live seed taking their normal "sweet time" to germinate in cold soils. However, once 60 GDD or more have accumulated, then seed that seems to be "dormant" compared to others that exhibit radicle roots, coleoptiles, and lateral seminal roots may well be the result of imbibitional chilling injury. Sometimes, instead of immediate cessation of the germination process (i.e., "dormant" seed symptom), the radicle root and coleoptile emerge from the seed coat before ceasing further development (Fig. 2).

Another challenge in diagnosing imbibitional chilling injury as the cause of poor stands of corn is that eventually the dead seed or seed that germinated but simply ceased further development will naturally begin to decompose. Consequently, if you wait too long to investigate a problem field, you might be tempted to diagnose seed or seedling disease as the cause of the poor stand.

Daily, or hourly, soil temperature records coupled with knowledge of a field's planting date are useful for "pointing the finger" at imbibitional chilling injury. Because imbibition occurs within the first 24 to 48 hours after planting into moist soil, one can imagine that timing of planting relative to the onset of several days of cold soil temperatures influences the risk of imbibitional chilling injury. Anecdotal stories abound in the coffeeshops about fields planted 3 days ahead of a cold snap emerging just fine... fields planted 2 days ahead of the cold snap experiencing some emergence problems... fields planted 1 day ahead of the cold snap having more problems... and fields planted the day of the cold snap having major problems.

Factors Influencing Risk of Imbibitional Chilling Injury

  • Intensity and Duration of Cold Soils. Obviously, 40F soil temperatures represent a higher risk than 50F temperatures. A single day of cold soils is likely less risky than multiple, consecutive, days of cold soils.
  • Soil Moisture. Daily soil temperature fluctuation is more dramatic in dry soils than in moist soils. That means higher daily maximums and lower daily minimums.
  • Plant Residue Cover. Daily soil temperatures fluctuate less in no-till fields that have a lot of surface residue from previous crops or current cover crops. In particular, soil temperatures in such fields will not drop as rapidly or dramatically in response to a cold snap as will bare fields. That's the good news. The bad news is that soil temperatures in fields with heavy surface residues are generally lower to begin with than bare soils early in the season and so early planting of corn in no-till fields is somewhat more risky in general.
  • Seed Quality? One can speculate that seed lots with lower than desirable cold germination ratings might be more susceptible to imbibitional chilling injury.

Here is the link to the full article. https://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/news/timeless/ImbibitionalChilling.html

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Are you and your corn planter ready for great yields?

Corn planters operated out of adjustment and at too high of a speed can lower yields up to 20 bushels of grain or 4 tons of silage per acre

The tire pressure also has a profound effect. Why does this happen? Uniform seed placement and correct depth are very important. Poor seed depth and spacing will reduce yields and waste great genetics, good soil fertility and effective herbicides. If the planter drops doubles or triple seeds it causes competition for sunlight, nutrition and water. This is called crowding and can result to barren plants or runty ears. This lowers grain yields and corn silage quality and yields. A planter set to drop 30,000 seeds per acre can easily do it and still do a lousy job. For example if 5,000 seeds are in the form of doubles and triples or come up more than 48 hours after the majority of seeds, due to poor depth control, they are essentially weeds!

Take these steps in order to prepare your planter for picket fence stands:

  1. Get out the operator’s manual and find the correct tire pressure for your planter.
  2. Finger pickup and vacuum units spit out seeds as fast as a submachine gun spits out bullets. Minor wear can make them perform imperfectly. Your operator’s manual tells you how to care for these planter components.
  3. Backer plates, brushes, springs, fingers and belts all need checking every year. To save time checking parts, you can always take them to your dealer. There are also some very good independent companies that do a great job of maintenance on planter components at a reasonable price. Case IH planters have been known to wear grooves in there seed disc, if they are gone replace them. If the singulator springs have lost their springiness change the group of springs. Seed brushes should not be worn unevenly or they will not perform properly, in which they should be replaced.
  4. Disc openers should be at least 14½ inches in diameter (Case IH openers are slightly smaller but they should not wear at more than a 1/2 inch.). When sliding business cards in at the 4 o’clock position, they should touch at least 1½-2 ½ inches apart. Make the adjustment on the arm. THIS WILL PREVENT a W shaped seed furrow. In Case IH planters check the firming point, do not hesitate to replace it. This insures a good seed furrow.
  5. Gauge wheels need to be adjusted so that they slightly rub the disc openers. Ragged seed walls cause uneven seed depth resulting in uneven emergence.
  6. Check the seed tube, as well as mud scrapers, for wear.
  7. Shake the entire seed unit to see the amount of wear on the bushings. Worn bushings will cause emergence problems because of an inability to keep the unit level. This will cause jerking in the drive which results in an uneven seed drop.
  8. Closing wheels, no matter what type, should be centered on the seed trench. Ensure that closing wheels have good bearings, are unbent, and apply even pressure. If you have spiked closing wheels the tips should be no closer than 2 3/8 – 2 ½ inches apart. They should not penetrate the soil beyond the Unit. The closing wheels have the beveled side in and the flat side out. These 13-inch wheels were originally residue trash wheels designed to go in front of the planter, therefore, you put the one marked L on the right side and the one marked R on the left side. If you have one spiked wheel, it will be a 15-inch wheel, and the rubber or cast wheel should be 1 7/8 inches from the spiked wheel. There are usually two holes drilled in the closing wheel bracket, It is better to put the rubber wheel in the rear position which tends to make it act as a depth gauge wheel. There are many closing wheel variations on the market and if installed according to directions, they do the job well, but some will work better in particular situations.
  9. Check the chains and drives to ensure that they are taunt and running smoothly. If the drive system is all badly worn electric motors should be considered as an alternative.
    The down pressure springs should be sound. You should keep spares available. Hydraulic and air down pressure if used need careful checking. (They work well)
  10. Measure the distances between units. They should be 30 inches. If they are not, they have slid or may be twisted. This can reap havoc in a lot of areas such as: depth, singulation, row width, and chain lineup.

The following practices in the field will help ensure picket fence stands:

  1. Make sure the planter frame is level when it is in the ground. Non-level planters can lead to several unexpected problems such as:
    •The fertilizer coulter bearings may be so close to the soil that they catch and pile residue.
    • Rigid residue managers may dig trenches or canals that force the depth gauge wheels to ride high and put the seed in to shallow.
    • The rear closing wheels are high and do not close the seed slot, this will hinder emergence. Many times this will occur when the hitch is too low or the tractor tires are worn down from last year, sometimes mellowness of the field will affect this.
  2. Parallel arms should be close to level when the planter is in the ground in order to achieve maximum benefit from down-pressure springs. Be sure to check the bushings on arms and replace if they are sloppy.
  3. Maintain the frame height between 20 and 22 inches from the ground.
  4. If the frame and units are not level, it is better to have them a little higher in front rather than a little lower. Never the opposite! If the units are low in front, the rear packer wheels may not perform well and emergence will be hindered. A planter that was level last year may be different this year due to worn tractor tires.
  5. A no-till coulter or center zone-till coulter should be one-half inch shallower than planting depth. Some farmers have taken the no-till coulter off and feel they get better stands because of less bounce.
  6. To prevent fertilizer burn, the fertilizer coulter should be around 4 inches deep and at least 2 inches away from the seed trench. Check this often! Every season we see a few people that have had one get bent or slide over and burn one row in a field or two. This makes for a very unhappy farmer. There is always going to be exceptions to this rule. If the total of N and K is more than 90# /acre the fertilizer should be moved further from the seed furrow.
  7. Rigid residue managers should only turn about 70% of the time. They should not move dirt or make miniature canals. This can cause the depth gauge wheels to ride too high, in which the seed will be planted too shallow. Floating row cleaners with depth band wheels can alleviate this problem. The depth bands may have to come off in extremely heavy residue. There is a feeling that if you run trash wheels a little wider to get the trash beyond the gauge wheels, you will get better depth control. I agree with this statement.
  8. Seed depth should be checked with every soil condition change. Down pressure springs and depth gauge wheels may need changing as conditions change.
  9. Seed depth should be no shallower than 1¾ inches. When checking depth, pat the little point of dirt down in the center of the row before you measure. It’s better to be 2 inches deep than too shallow. Check last year’s corn stubble, if it has a lot of brace roots above ground, you might have planted too shallow in 2016. Planting early and too deep on wet heavy soils can result in surface crusting or rotting seed.
  10. Remember to use the recommended seed flow lubricant whether you use finger planters or vacuum planters. Closing wheels should be centered exactly on the row.
  11. If you have spiked closing wheels, the gap between the spikes should be between 2 and 2½ inches. Use very little pressure on spiked closing wheels.
  12. It is recommended to plant large seeds in the early part of the planting season and small ones later.
  13. Planting speed should be between 4½ and 5½ miles per hour. You will pay a penalty for high speed planting. In a trial by Ken Ferrie, a field agronomist for Farm Journal magazine, a planter running at 5 mph was compared to its operation at 7 mph, at the higher speed; yield was 11 bushels per acre less than at the lower speed. The extra speed caused havoc with the meter, uneven distribution in the row and caused depth control problems. For example with a 12-row planter traveling at 7 mph, you can plant 200 acres in a 10-hour day compared to 145 acres with a planter running at 5 mph. At 7 mph, it will take 5.2 days to plant 1,000 acres vs. 7.1 days at 5 miles an hour. Finishing two days early will cost you 11,000 bushels at harvest, or $44,000 at $4.00 per bushel of corn or $66,000 at $6.00 per bushel of corn. The fine for speeding is: $2,315 per hour at $4.00 per bushel or $3,472 per hour at $6.00 per bushel. One of the most important things you can do when planting corn is this: Get off the tractor often. There is no technology available that checks seed depth, the distance fertilizer is from the seed slot, and the level of the planter. The operator must be the most alert person on the farm. If he or she is tired, lazy or just doesn’t know the importance of each item, your yield can suffer.

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Probably what is the most important item is be ready. Corn planted when the soil is ready will almost always thrive. Getting the ball rolling in February or March means

You will be ready at the end of April and if you get a good weather spell you will be ready.

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